The kidney is a major excretory organ in the body. Within 5 minutes all your blood passes through your kidneys so it can filter the blood.

It performs the following functions.

1.Production of red blood cells

2. Production of vitamin D

3. Regulation of blood pressure

4. Removal of harmful substances from the body

5. Regulation of sodium and ion/electrolytes in the

6. It regulate blood acid or base (pH) .

Kidney disease falls under 2 categories .ie acute kidney failure (AKF) and chronic kidney disease(CKD).

*Chronic kidney disease means gradual loss of kidney function which is irreversible. In the hospital or lab we estimate something called Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). If the GFR falls below 60-55 , together with other tests,  your doctor may become alarmed about CKD.


*Diabetes mellitus (DM)   *Hypertension (HTN).

In fact DM HTN accounts for 60-75 percent of the cases.

2.HIV .HIV can directly damage the kidneys or the drug used in management of the virus can also damage it

2.NSAIDs : These are classes of drugs which is used in the management of pain but they also affect kidney functions  this includes ibuprofen diclofenac etc.

3. Sickle cell disease.

4. Mercury /galamsey

5. Herbal drugs.

6. Infections(UTI,pylonephritisHBV)

 7. Polycystic kidney disease a genetic disease which affects the kidneys

*Acute kidney failure (AKF)

It has been understood that recurrent AKF can lead to chronic kidney disease .


 Common cause of AKF is dehydration so it is advisable  to stay hydrated always. Also urine retention, prostate enlargement, kidney stones may result in AKF.

High protein diet is not known to be a cause of CKD but can complicate it . High protein diet leads to increase in blood sodium/salt which exacerbates hypertension further destroying the kidneys, also protein diet causes too much waste to be built in the body hence people with CKD should consider the amount of protein they take.

Complications of CKD 

1. Anaemia

2. High blood potassium which leads to irregular heart beats

3. High blood acid  

4. Low blood albumin which cause oedema(pregnant woman foot)

5. Hypertension

6. Bone disease .

7. High blood urea and nitrogenous waste which cause heart problems

8. Diabetes, hypertension and CKD are just like threesome.

9. Fluid overload ie more water build up in the body.

There’s no known cure for CKD

It’s managed with drugs and dialysis. Herbal drugs will further complicate it  

Kidney Transplant may be curative but expensive.

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