Investigations for dysmenorrhea includes a good medical history involving symptoms and menstrual cycles.
This may be followed by a pelvic exam to check for any masses like fibroid etc.
An ultrasound exam may also be done. A laparoscopy (which involves direct visualization of the pelvic and abdominal structures using a special instrument in a minor surgery).
Pain relievers are usually the first line of treatment and in some cases hormonal medications, such as birth control pills may be used for the treatment. Medications to relieve pain include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which mainly act by reducing the amount of prostaglandins made by the body and decreasing their effects.
Taking NSAIDS when the signs are clear your menstrual period will start or when you feel the initial pain produces better outcomes and usually by 2nd or 3rd day, the pain would have improved significantly. Women with stomach or duodenal disorders like ulcers (usually abdominal pain worsened by hunger or ingestion of food), and asthma should stay away from NSAIDS. Examples of NSAIDS are ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, diclofenac etc. people who for the above mentioned reasons cannot take NSAIDS can opt for paracetamol, or some antispasmodics like hyoscine butylbromide(buscopan) and Nospa.
Hormones like estrogen and progestin present in birth control products like the pill, the injectables, IUD and implants can be used to treat dysmenorrhea. Some birth control methods contain progestin only, such as the implant and the injectable. The birth control method is also good for dysmenorrhea caused by endometriosis.
Lifestyle modification play a key role in the non-pharmacological treatment. These include exercise, good eating habit and relaxation techniques.
Some may need surgery. Especially those with fibroids. Some women with adenomyosis who do not have any reproductive wishes may opt for hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus).